jackson学习之三:常用API操作

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内容:所有原创文章分类汇总及配套源码,涉及Java、Docker、Kubernetes、DevOPS等;

系列文章汇总

源码下载

  1. 如果您不想编码,可以在GitHub下载所有源码,地址和链接信息如下表所示(https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos):
名称 链接 备注
项目主页 https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos 该项目在GitHub上的主页
git仓库地址(https) https://github.com/zq2599/blog_demos.git 该项目源码的仓库地址,https协议
git仓库地址(ssh) git@github.com:zq2599/blog_demos.git 该项目源码的仓库地址,ssh协议
  1. 这个git项目中有多个文件夹,本章的应用在jacksondemo文件夹下,如下图红框所示:
    在这里插入图片描述

本篇概览

本文是《jackson学习》系列的第三篇,前面咱们学习了jackson的低阶API,知道了底层原理,本篇开始学习平时最常用的基本功能,涉及内容如下:

  1. 体验最常用的操作,内容如下图所示:
    在这里插入图片描述

  2. 介绍常用的可配置属性,以便按需要来设置;

  3. 接下来进入快速浏览的环节,咱们一起先把各个API过一遍;

单个对象序列化

先看常用的序列化API:

  1. 对象转字符串:
String jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(twitterEntry);
  1. 对象转文件:
mapper.writeValue(new File("twitter.json"), twitterEntry);
  1. 对象转byte数组:
byte[] array = mapper.writeValueAsBytes(twitterEntry);

单个对象反序列化

  1. 字符串转对象:
TwitterEntry tFromStr = mapper.readValue(objectJsonStr, TwitterEntry.class);
  1. 文件转对象:
TwitterEntry tFromFile = mapper.readValue(new File("twitter.json"), TwitterEntry.class);
  1. byte数组转对象:
TwitterEntry tFromBytes = mapper.readValue(array, TwitterEntry.class);
  1. 字符串网络地址转对象:
String testJsonDataUrl = "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/zq2599/blog_demos/master/files/twitteer_message.json";

TwitterEntry tFromUrl = mapper.readValue(new URL(testJsonDataUrl), TwitterEntry.class);

集合序列化

  1. HashMap转字符串:
String mapJsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(map);

集合反序列化

  1. 字符串转HashMap:
Map<String, Object> mapFromStr = mapper.readValue(mapJsonStr, new TypeReference<Map<String, Object>>() {});

JsonNode

  1. 如果您不想使用XXX.class来做反序列化,也能使用JsonNode来操作:
JsonNode jsonNode = mapper.readTree(mapJsonStr);
String name = jsonNode.get("name").asText();
int age = jsonNode.get("age").asInt();
String city = jsonNode.get("addr").get("city").asText();
String street = jsonNode.get("addr").get("street").asText();

时间字段格式化

  1. 对于Date字段,默认的反序列化是时间戳,可以修改配置:
mapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss"));
dateMapStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(dateMap);

JSON数组的反序列化

假设jsonArrayStr是个json数组格式的字符串:

  1. JSON数组转对象数组:
TwitterEntry[] twitterEntryArray = mapper.readValue(jsonArrayStr, TwitterEntry[].class);
  1. JSON数组转对象集合(ArrayList):
List<TwitterEntry> twitterEntryList = mapper.readValue(jsonArrayStr, new TypeReference<List<TwitterEntry>>() {});

完整代码

  1. 上述所有常用API用法的完整代码如下:
package com.bolingcavalry.jacksondemo.databind;

import com.bolingcavalry.jacksondemo.beans.TwitterEntry;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.type.TypeReference;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonNode;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;
import org.slf4j.Logger;
import org.slf4j.LoggerFactory;
import java.io.File;
import java.net.URL;
import java.text.SimpleDateFormat;
import java.util.*;

public class SimpleDemo {

    private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(SimpleDemo.class);

    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        ObjectMapper mapper = new ObjectMapper();

        logger.info("以下是序列化操作");

        // 对象 -> 字符串
        TwitterEntry twitterEntry = new TwitterEntry();
        twitterEntry.setId(123456L);
        twitterEntry.setFromUserId(101);
        twitterEntry.setToUserId(102);
        twitterEntry.setText("this is a message for serializer test");
        twitterEntry.setLanguageCode("zh");

        String jsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(twitterEntry);
        logger.info("序列化的字符串:{}", jsonStr);

        // 对象 -> 文件
        mapper.writeValue(new File("twitter.json"), twitterEntry);

        // 对象 -> byte数组
        byte[] array = mapper.writeValueAsBytes(twitterEntry);

        logger.info("\n\n以下是反序列化操作");

        // 字符串 -> 对象
        String objectJsonStr = "{\n" +
                "  \"id\":1125687077,\n" +
                "  \"text\":\"@stroughtonsmith You need to add a \\\"Favourites\\\" tab to TC/iPhone. Like what TwitterFon did. I can't WAIT for your Twitter App!! :) Any ETA?\",\n" +
                "  \"fromUserId\":855523, \n" +
                "  \"toUserId\":815309,\n" +
                "  \"languageCode\":\"en\"\n" +
                "}";


        TwitterEntry tFromStr = mapper.readValue(objectJsonStr, TwitterEntry.class);
        logger.info("从字符串反序列化的对象:{}", tFromStr);

        // 文件 -> 对象
        TwitterEntry tFromFile = mapper.readValue(new File("twitter.json"), TwitterEntry.class);
        logger.info("从文件反序列化的对象:{}", tFromStr);

        // byte数组 -> 对象
        TwitterEntry tFromBytes = mapper.readValue(array, TwitterEntry.class);
        logger.info("从byte数组反序列化的对象:{}", tFromBytes);

        // 字符串网络地址 -> 对象
        String testJsonDataUrl = "https://raw.githubusercontent.com/zq2599/blog_demos/master/files/twitteer_message.json";

        TwitterEntry tFromUrl = mapper.readValue(new URL(testJsonDataUrl), TwitterEntry.class);
        logger.info("从网络地址反序列化的对象:{}", tFromUrl);


        logger.info("\n\n以下是集合序列化操作");

        Map<String, Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("name", "tom");
        map.put("age", 11);

        Map<String, String> addr = new HashMap<>();
        addr.put("city","深圳");
        addr.put("street", "粤海");

        map.put("addr", addr);

        String mapJsonStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(map);
        logger.info("HashMap序列化的字符串:{}", mapJsonStr);

        logger.info("\n\n以下是集合反序列化操作");
        Map<String, Object> mapFromStr = mapper.readValue(mapJsonStr, new TypeReference<Map<String, Object>>() {});
        logger.info("从字符串反序列化的HashMap对象:{}", mapFromStr);

        // JsonNode类型操作
        JsonNode jsonNode = mapper.readTree(mapJsonStr);
        String name = jsonNode.get("name").asText();
        int age = jsonNode.get("age").asInt();
        String city = jsonNode.get("addr").get("city").asText();
        String street = jsonNode.get("addr").get("street").asText();

        logger.info("用JsonNode对象和API反序列化得到的数:name[{}]、age[{}]、city[{}]、street[{}]", name, age, city, street);

        // 时间类型格式

        Map<String, Object> dateMap = new HashMap<>();
        dateMap.put("today", new Date());

        String dateMapStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(dateMap);
        logger.info("默认的时间序列化:{}", dateMapStr);

        // 设置时间格式
        mapper.setDateFormat(new SimpleDateFormat("yyyy-MM-dd hh:mm:ss"));
        dateMapStr = mapper.writeValueAsString(dateMap);
        logger.info("自定义的时间序列化:{}", dateMapStr);

        System.out.println(objectJsonStr);

        // json数组
        String jsonArrayStr = "[{\n" +
                "  \"id\":1,\n" +
                "  \"text\":\"text1\",\n" +
                "  \"fromUserId\":11, \n" +
                "  \"toUserId\":111,\n" +
                "  \"languageCode\":\"en\"\n" +
                "},\n" +
                "{\n" +
                "  \"id\":2,\n" +
                "  \"text\":\"text2\",\n" +
                "  \"fromUserId\":22, \n" +
                "  \"toUserId\":222,\n" +
                "  \"languageCode\":\"zh\"\n" +
                "},\n" +
                "{\n" +
                "  \"id\":3,\n" +
                "  \"text\":\"text3\",\n" +
                "  \"fromUserId\":33, \n" +
                "  \"toUserId\":333,\n" +
                "  \"languageCode\":\"en\"\n" +
                "}]";

        // json数组 -> 对象数组
        TwitterEntry[] twitterEntryArray = mapper.readValue(jsonArrayStr, TwitterEntry[].class);
        logger.info("json数组反序列化成对象数组:{}", Arrays.toString(twitterEntryArray));

        // json数组 -> 对象集合
        List<TwitterEntry> twitterEntryList = mapper.readValue(jsonArrayStr, new TypeReference<List<TwitterEntry>>() {});
        logger.info("json数组反序列化成对象集合:{}", twitterEntryList);
    }
}
  1. 执行结果如下:
C:\jdk\bin\java.exe -javaagent:C:\sofware\JetBrains\IntelliJIDEA\lib\idea_rt.jar=64570:C:\sofware\JetBrains\IntelliJIDEA\bin -Dfile.encoding=UTF-8 -classpath C:\jdk\jre\lib\charsets.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\deploy.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\access-bridge-64.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\cldrdata.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\dnsns.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\jaccess.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\jfxrt.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\localedata.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\nashorn.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\sunec.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\sunjce_provider.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\sunmscapi.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\sunpkcs11.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\ext\zipfs.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\javaws.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\jce.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\jfr.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\jfxswt.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\jsse.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\management-agent.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\plugin.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\resources.jar;C:\jdk\jre\lib\rt.jar;D:\github\blog_demos\jacksondemo\databind\target\classes;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\com\fasterxml\jackson\core\jackson-databind\2.11.0\jackson-databind-2.11.0.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\com\fasterxml\jackson\core\jackson-annotations\2.11.0\jackson-annotations-2.11.0.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\com\fasterxml\jackson\core\jackson-core\2.11.0\jackson-core-2.11.0.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\org\slf4j\slf4j-log4j12\1.7.25\slf4j-log4j12-1.7.25.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\org\slf4j\slf4j-api\1.7.25\slf4j-api-1.7.25.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\log4j\log4j\1.2.17\log4j-1.2.17.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\commons-io\commons-io\2.7\commons-io-2.7.jar;C:\Users\12167\.m2\repository\org\apache\commons\commons-lang3\3.10\commons-lang3-3.10.jar;D:\github\blog_demos\jacksondemo\beans\target\classes com.bolingcavalry.jacksondemo.databind.SimpleDemo
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:27 - 以下是序列化操作
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:38 - 序列化的字符串:{"id":123456,"text":"this is a message for serializer test","fromUserId":101,"toUserId":102,"languageCode":"zh"}
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:47 - 

以下是反序列化操作
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:60 - 从字符串反序列化的对象:[Tweet, id: 1125687077, text='@stroughtonsmith You need to add a "Favourites" tab to TC/iPhone. Like what TwitterFon did. I can't WAIT for your Twitter App!! :) Any ETA?', from: 855523, to: 815309, lang: en]
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:64 - 从文件反序列化的对象:[Tweet, id: 1125687077, text='@stroughtonsmith You need to add a "Favourites" tab to TC/iPhone. Like what TwitterFon did. I can't WAIT for your Twitter App!! :) Any ETA?', from: 855523, to: 815309, lang: en]
2020-08-28 07:53:01 INFO  SimpleDemo:68 - 从byte数组反序列化的对象:[Tweet, id: 123456, text='this is a message for serializer test', from: 101, to: 102, lang: zh]
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:74 - 从网络地址反序列化的对象:[Tweet, id: 112233445566, text='this is a message from zq2599's github', from: 201, to: 202, lang: en]
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:77 - 

以下是集合序列化操作
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:90 - HashMap序列化的字符串:{"name":"tom","addr":{"city":"深圳","street":"粤海"},"age":11}
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:92 - 

以下是集合反序列化操作
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:94 - 从字符串反序列化的HashMap对象:{name=tom, addr={city=深圳, street=粤海}, age=11}
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:103 - 用JsonNode对象和API反序列化得到的数:name[tom]、age[11]、city[深圳]、street[粤海]
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:111 - 默认的时间序列化:{"today":1598572384838}
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:116 - 自定义的时间序列化:{"today":"2020-08-28 07:53:04"}
{
  "id":1125687077,
  "text":"@stroughtonsmith You need to add a \"Favourites\" tab to TC/iPhone. Like what TwitterFon did. I can't WAIT for your Twitter App!! :) Any ETA?",
  "fromUserId":855523, 
  "toUserId":815309,
  "languageCode":"en"
}
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:145 - json数组反序列化成对象数组:[[Tweet, id: 1, text='text1', from: 11, to: 111, lang: en], [Tweet, id: 2, text='text2', from: 22, to: 222, lang: zh], [Tweet, id: 3, text='text3', from: 33, to: 333, lang: en]]
2020-08-28 07:53:04 INFO  SimpleDemo:149 - json数组反序列化成对象集合:[[Tweet, id: 1, text='text1', from: 11, to: 111, lang: en], [Tweet, id: 2, text='text2', from: 22, to: 222, lang: zh], [Tweet, id: 3, text='text3', from: 33, to: 333, lang: en]]

Process finished with exit code 0
  1. 还会产生名为twitter.json的文件,内容如下:
{"id":123456,"text":"this is a message for serializer test","fromUserId":101,"toUserId":102,"languageCode":"zh"}

常用配置

下面是平时可能用到的自定义配置项目:

  1. 序列化结果格式化:
mapper.enable(SerializationFeature.INDENT_OUTPUT);
  1. 空对象不要抛出异常:
mapper.disable(SerializationFeature.FAIL_ON_EMPTY_BEANS);
  1. Date、Calendar等序列化为时间格式的字符串(如果不执行以下设置,就会序列化成时间戳格式):
mapper.disable(SerializationFeature.WRITE_DATES_AS_TIMESTAMPS);
  1. 反序列化时,遇到未知属性不要抛出异常:
mapper.disable(DeserializationFeature.FAIL_ON_UNKNOWN_PROPERTIES);
  1. 反序列化时,空字符串对于的实例属性为null:
mapper.enable(DeserializationFeature.ACCEPT_EMPTY_STRING_AS_NULL_OBJECT);
  1. 允许C和C++样式注释:
mapper.configure(JsonParser.Feature.ALLOW_COMMENTS, true);
  1. 允许字段名没有引号(可以进一步减小json体积):
mapper.configure(JsonParser.Feature.ALLOW_UNQUOTED_FIELD_NAMES, true);
  1. 允许单引号:
mapper.configure(JsonParser.Feature.ALLOW_SINGLE_QUOTES, true);

特殊配置:在json对象最外层再包裹一层

  1. 最后要说的是个特殊配置,先来看看正常情况一个普通的序列化结果:
{
  "id" : 1,
  "text" : "aabbcc",
  "fromUserId" : 456,
  "toUserId" : 0,
  "languageCode" : "zh"
}
  1. 接下来咱们做两件事,首先,是给上述json对应的实例类添加一个注解,如下图红框:
    在这里插入图片描述
  2. 其次,执行以下配置:
mapper.enable(SerializationFeature.WRAP_ROOT_VALUE);
  1. 然后再次执行TwitterEntry实例的序列化,得到的结果如下,可见和之前的序列化结果相比,之前的整个json都变成了一个value,此value对应的key就是注解JsonRootName的value属性:
{
  "aaa" : {
    "id" : 1,
    "text" : "aabbcc",
    "fromUserId" : 456,
    "toUserId" : 0,
    "languageCode" : "zh"
  }
}
  • 至此,开发中常用的API和配置都已经介绍完成,希望能给您带来一些参考,接下来的章节,咱们一起去了解另一个常用操作:jackson注解

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